Thirteen acylated and phosphorylated derivatives of β-1,6-linked glucosamine disaccharide (lipid A analogs), which were synthesized after the structural model of Salmonella-type lipid A, and seven similar derivatives of glucosamine monosaccharide (lipid A-related compounds) were studied for their immunobiological activities. These included mitogenicity and polyclonal B cell activation enhancement of migration of monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes derived from human peripheral blood, stimulation of guinea pig peritoneal macrophages, activation of human complement, and stimulation of serum antibody production and induction of delayed-type hypersensitivity against ovalbumin in guinea pigs. Comparisons were made with lipid A, Re-glycolipid, lipopolysaccharide of natural sources, and a well-known synthetic adjuvant. N-acetylmuramyl-L-alayl-D-isoglutamine. Some of the lipid A analogs were found to manifest the mitogenic, polyclonal B cell-activating macrophage-stimulating, complement-activating, and immunostimulating activities, although the observed activities were generally far less than those of natural products in intensity and efficiency. Other immunobiological effects exhibited by most of the synthetic lipid A analogs were the enhancement of migration of monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is premature to draw definite conclusions on structure-activity relationships, since a few compounds which were active in some assay systems were scarcely active in other assays. However, an indisputable fact was that β-1,6-glucosamine disaccharide 1α,4'-diphosphate, which carries two amide-bound (R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyl and three ester-bound tetradecanoyl residues, and thus has the structure most closely resembling natural lipid A among test compounds in this study, was definitely active in all of the present assay systems. However, its potency was generally much less than natural products. Some of glucosamine monosaccharide derivatives, especially N-(R)-3-[(R)-3-hydroxytetradecanoyloxy]tetradecanoyl glucosamine, also exerted all of the in vitro activities described above. This face suggests that a glucosamine disaccharide structure may not necessarily be a prerequisite as far as the in vitro immunobiological activities tested are concerned.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases