The authors constructed a novel apparatus based on subharmonic ultrasound for the accurate imaging of closed cracks. Linear and nonlinear responses not only from the tip but also from other parts of cracks were observed in fundamental and subharmonic images, which were changed with varying closure stress. The subharmonic images always gave an accurate length of partially closed cracks, in contrast to the fundamental images in which the crack length was underestimated. Significant similarities in generation and resonance phenomena of subharmonic waves, acoustic emission, and the vibration of microbubbles are discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)