BACKGROUND: Although chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and acute pulmonary embolism (APE) share some clinical manifestations, a limited proportion of patients with CTEPH have a history of APE. Moreover, in histo-pathologic studies, it has been revealed that pulmonary vasculature lesions similar to pulmonary arterial hypertension existed in patients with CTEPH. Thus, it remains unknown whether these 3 disorders also share genetic backgrounds. METHODS AND RESULTS: Whole exome screening was performed with DNA isolated from 51 unrelated patients with CTEPH of Japanese ancestry. The frequency of genetic variants associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension or APE in patients with CTEPH was compared with those in the integrative Japanese Genome Variation Database 3.5KJPN. Whole exome screening analysis showed 17 049 nonsynonymous variants in patients with CTEPH. Although we found 6 nonsynonymous variants that are associated with APE in patients with CTEPH, there was no nonsynonymous variant associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. Patients with CTEPH with a history of APE had nonsynonymous variants of F5, which encodes factor V. In con-trast, patients with CTEPH without a history of APE had a nonsynonymous variant of THBD, which encodes thrombomodulin. Moreover, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, which is one of the pathogenic proteins in CTEPH, was significantly more activated in those who had the variants of THBD compared with those without it. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide the first evidence that patients with CTEPH have some variants associated with APE, regardless of the presence or absence of a history of APE. Furthermore, the variants might be different between patients with CTEPH with and without a history of APE.
- Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension
- Gene variants
- Pulmonary hypertension
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine