Identification of non-neutralizing anti-factor X autoantibodies in three Japanese cases of autoimmune acquired factor X deficiency

Masayoshi Souri, Tsukasa Osaki, Yuji Shimura, Satoshi Ichikawa, Makiko Mori, Yoshiyuki Ogawa, Akitada Ichinose

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Introduction: Autoimmune factor X (FX or F10) deficiency (AiF10D) is an extremely rare acquired haemorrhagic disorder characterized by a severe reduction in FX activity due to autoantibodies against FX. Aim: Anti-FX autoantibodies were investigated in four patients with suspected AiF10D, and their properties were analysed. Methods and results: Anti-FX auto antibodies in plasma were detected by ELISA with three of four cases. One case of anti-FX autoantibody negativity was later diagnosed as AL-amyloidosis. IgG1 and IgG3 coexisted in all anti-FX autoantibodies of the three patients with AiF10D (cases X1, X2, and X3). Western blot analysis showed that the antibodies were bound to the FX light chain for cases X2 and X3, but the binding was weak for case X1. When the fusion proteins of a secretory luciferase with full-length FX or its γ-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla) domain were added to the plasma of the three patients, both fusion proteins were immunoprecipitated as antigen-antibody complexes. Contrarily, the latter fusion protein produced in the presence of warfarin demonstrated a decrease in the collection rate, suggesting that their autoantibodies recognized the light chain and regions containing Gla residues. Since all three patients were essentially negative for FX inhibitors, it was concluded that the anti-FX autoantibodies for these cases were predominantly non-neutralizing. The concentration of the FX antigen also significantly reduced in these patients, suggesting that anti-FX autoantibodies promote the clearance of FX. Conclusion: Immunological anti-FX autoantibody detection is highly recommended to ensure that AiF10D cases are not overlooked, and to start necessary immunosuppressive therapies.

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022


  • IgG subclass
  • antibody eradication
  • hyper-clearance type autoantibody
  • immunological detection
  • immunosuppressive therapy
  • light chain of factor X
  • non-neutralizing autoantibody

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Genetics(clinical)


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