Molecular biomarkers in blood are needed to aid the early diagnosis and clinical assessment of glioblastoma (GBM). Here, in order to identify biomarker candidates in plasma of GBM patients, we performed quantitative comparisons of the plasma proteomes of GBM patients (n = 14) and healthy controls (n = 15) using SWATH mass spectrometry analysis. The results were validated by means of quantitative targeted absolute proteomics analysis. As a result, we identified eight biomarker candidates for GBM (leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein (LRG1), complement component C9 (C9), C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha-1-antichymo-trypsin (SERPINA3), apolipoprotein B-100 (APOB), gelsolin (GSN), Ig alpha-1 chain C region (IGHA1), and apolipoprotein A-IV (APOA4)). Among them, LRG1, C9, CRP, GSN, IGHA1, and APOA4 gave values of the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of greater than 0.80. To investigate the relationships between the biomarker candidates and GBM biology, we examined correlations between plasma concentrations of biomarker candidates and clinical presentation (tumor size, progression-free survival time, or overall survival time) in GBM patients. The plasma concentrations of LRG1, CRP, and C9 showed significant positive correlations with tumor size (R2 = 0.534, 0.495, and 0.452, respectively).
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