Ice Ic without stacking disorder by evacuating hydrogen from hydrogen hydrate

Kazuki Komatsu, Shinichi Machida, Fumiya Noritake, Takanori Hattori, Asami Sano-Furukawa, Ryo Yamane, Keishiro Yamashita, Hiroyuki Kagi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


Water freezes below 0 °C at ambient pressure ordinarily to ice Ih, with hexagonal stacking sequence. Under certain conditions, ice with a cubic stacking sequence can also be formed, but ideal ice Ic without stacking-disorder has never been formed until recently. Here we demonstrate a route to obtain ice Ic without stacking-disorder by degassing hydrogen from the high-pressure form of hydrogen hydrate, C2, which has a host framework isostructural with ice Ic. The stacking-disorder free ice Ic is formed from C2 via an intermediate amorphous or nano-crystalline form under decompression, unlike the direct transformations occurring in ice XVI from neon hydrate, or ice XVII from hydrogen hydrate. The obtained ice Ic shows remarkable thermal stability, until the phase transition to ice Ih at 250 K, originating from the lack of dislocations. This discovery of ideal ice Ic will promote understanding of the role of stacking-disorder on the physical properties of ice as a counter end-member of ice Ih.

Original languageEnglish
Article number464
JournalNature communications
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2020 Dec 1
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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