Hydrogenated tetraazaporphyrins-old but new core-modified phthalocyanine analogues

Takamitsu Fukuda, Nagao Kobayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


The synthesis, and spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of hydrogenated tetraazaporphyrins (TAPs), namely tetraazachlorins (TACs), tetraazabacteriochlorins (TABCs) and tetraazaisobacteriochlorins (TAiBCs), have been reviewed. While the first synthesis of this type of hydrogenated aromatic macrocycle was achieved as early as 1958 by Linstead et al. (G. E. Ficken, R. P. Linstead, E. Stephen and M. Whalley, J. Chem. Soc., 1958, 3879), the development of modern synthetic strategies enables us to isolate stable forms of the hydrogenated TAP derivatives. Benzo-, 2,3-naphtho- and 1,2-naphtho-fused derivatives were synthesized extensively, and all structural isomers have been elucidated. The chemical structures have been characterized using a variety of techniques, including mass spectrometry, 1H and 13C NMR, X-ray crystallography and IR spectroscopy. The spectroscopic properties (e.g., electronic absorption, magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), and fluorescence) of these compounds differ significantly from those of the original TAPs, or phthalocyanines (Pcs), due to the symmetry-lowering effects of the core aromatic macrocycles. The experimentally observed properties have been rationalized on the basis of electrochemical studies and quantum chemical calculations. As an application of the TAC skeleton, the synthesis and electronic structures of tribenzo TAC (TBTAC)-C60 conjugates, in which both components are covalently connected directly and thus show remarkable molecular orbital (MO) mixing between the constituting moieties, have also been reviewed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4685-4704
Number of pages20
JournalDalton Transactions
Issue number35
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Sep 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Inorganic Chemistry


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