Hybrid particle-field methods are computationally efficient approaches for modeling soft matter systems. So far, applications of these methodologies have been limited to constant volume conditions. Here, we reformulate particle-field interactions to represent systems coupled to constant external pressure. First, we show that the commonly used particle-field energy functional can be modified to model and parameterize the isotropic contributions to the pressure tensor without interfering with the microscopic forces on the particles. Second, we employ a square gradient particle-field interaction term to model non-isotropic contributions to the pressure tensor, such as in surface tension phenomena. This formulation is implemented within the hybrid particle-field molecular dynamics approach and is tested on a series of model systems. Simulations of a homogeneous water box demonstrate that it is possible to parameterize the equation of state to reproduce any target density for a given external pressure. Moreover, the same parameterization is transferable to systems of similar coarse-grained mapping resolution. Finally, we evaluate the feasibility of the proposed approach on coarse-grained models of phospholipids, finding that the term between water and the lipid hydrocarbon tails is alone sufficient to reproduce the experimental area per lipid in constant-pressure simulations and to produce a qualitatively correct lateral pressure profile.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry