Hybrid Orbital Control in Carbon Alloys

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This chapter discusses the hybridization of carbon atoms and shows that the directions of chemical bonds within a molecule cannot always be anticipated. An analytical expression for the general spnhybridization is also given. When a third chemical bond from two given chemical bonds is constructed in a general sp3 hybridization, there is a forbidden region of directions for the third chemical bond. The sp2 hybridization of graphite can be modified to the sp3 hybridization by doping with a halogen atom. Defect states induced by structural disorder, doping and a finite crystalline size are essential to control hybridization in carbon materials. This hybridization is characterized by experimentation using a variety of spectroscopic techniques such as: the Raman scattering, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the scanning tunnelling microscope/scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STM/STS) techniques. The Raman spectroscopy for graphite, diamond, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes is widely used for characterizations. In fullerenes, because of the high symmetry of the molecule, there exist special Raman-active modes of the molecule.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCarbon Alloys
Subtitle of host publicationNovel Concepts to Develop Carbon Science and Technology
PublisherElsevier Ltd
Number of pages26
ISBN (Print)9780080441634
Publication statusPublished - 2003 Mar

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)


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