Human enterovirus species A (HEV-A) consists of at least 16 members of different serotypes that are known to be the causative agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), herpangina, and other diseases, such as respiratory disease and polio-like flaccid paralysis. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16) are the major causative agents of HFMD. CVA5, CVA6, CVA10, and CVA12 mainly cause herpangina or are occasionally involved with sporadic cases of HFMD. We have previously shown that human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) is a cellular receptor for EV71 and CVA16. Using a large number of clinical isolates of HEV-A, we explored whether all clinical isolates of EV71 and other serotypes of HEV-A infected cells via SCARB2. We tested this possibility by infecting L-SCARB2 cells, which are L929 cells expressing human SCARB2, by infecting human RD cells that had been treated with small interfering RNAs for SCARB2 and by directly binding the viruses to a soluble SCARB2 protein. We showed that all 162 clinical isolates of EV71 propagated in L-SCARB2 cells, suggesting that SCARB2 is the critical receptor common to all EV71 strains. In addition, CVA7, CVA14, and CVA16, which are most closely related to each other, also utilized SCARB2 for infection. EV71, CVA14, and CVA16 are highly associated with HFMD, and EV71 and CVA7 are occasionally associated with neurological diseases, suggesting that SCARB2 plays important roles in the development of these diseases. In contrast, another group of viruses, such as CVA2, CVA3, CVA4, CVA5, CVA6, CVA8, CVA10, and CVA12, which are relatively distant from the EV71 group, is associated mainly with herpangina. None of these clinical isolates infected via the SCARB2-dependent pathway. HEV-A viruses can be divided into at least two groups depending on the use of SCARB2, and the receptor usage plays an important role in developing the specific diseases for each group.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Insect Science