In quantum spin chains at criticality, two types of scaling for the entanglement entropy exist: one comes from conformal field theory (CFT), and the other is for entanglement support of matrix product state (MPS) approximation. On the other hand, the quantum spin-chain models can be mapped onto two-dimensional (2D) classical ones by the Suzuki-Trotter decomposition. Motivated by the scaling and the mapping, we introduce information entropy for 2D classical spin configurations as well as a spectrum, and examine their basic properties in the Ising and the three-state Potts models on the square lattice. They are defined by the singular values of the reduced density matrix for a Monte Carlo snapshot. We find scaling relations of the entropy compatible with the CFT and the MPS results. Thus, we propose that the entropy is a kind of "holographic" entanglement entropy. At T c, the spin configuration is fractal, and various sizes of ordered clusters coexist. Then, the singular values automatically decompose the original snapshot into a set of images with different length scales, respectively. This is the origin of the scaling. In contrast to the MPS scaling, long-range spin correlation can be described by only few singular values. Furthermore, the spectrum, which is a set of logarithms of the singular values, also seems to be a holographic entanglement spectrum. We find multiple gaps in the spectrum, and in contrast to the topological phases, the low-lying levels below the gap represent spontaneous symmetry breaking. These contrasts are strong evidence of the dual nature of the holography. Based on these observations, we discuss the amount of information contained in one snapshot.
|Journal||Physical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics|
|Publication status||Published - 2012 Mar 1|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Statistics and Probability
- Condensed Matter Physics