History and latest trends in converter practice for steelmaking in Japan

Shin ya Kitamura, Ken ichiro Naito, Goro Okuyama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, the history and latest trends in the converter-based steelmaking process in Japan were summarised. After World War II, Japanese steel companies introduced the LD converter, and various original technologies have been developed to increase productivity, reduce the production cost, and improve the quality of steel. About 20 years after the introduction, the necessity of the additional stirring was recognised and various types of top-and-bottom-blowing converters were developed. By using this process, hot-metal dephosphorisation and smelting reduction were developed. In addition, fundamental research related to the converter technology is shown. Japanese steelmaking technology has been developed by the collaboration of university and industry. In industry, each company has an R&D centre where the applied and practical research is conducted. The research in academia is concentrated on the fundamentals. Recently, ISIJ organised the research projects on ‘multi-phase slag refining’ and ‘enhancement of lime dissolution’.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34-45
Number of pages12
JournalMineral Processing and Extractive Metallurgy: Transactions of the Institute of Mining and Metallurgy
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Apr 3


  • Japan
  • Word
  • converter
  • history
  • hot metal dephosphorisation
  • kinetics
  • smelting reduction
  • steelmaking
  • thermodynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Geochemistry and Petrology


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