Copper (Cu) dual-damascene interconnects with a self-formed MnSixOy barrier layer were successfully fabricated. Transmission electron microscopy shows that approximately 2-nm thick and continuous MnSixOy layer was formed at the interface of Cu and dielectric SiO2, and that no barrier was formed at the via bottom because no oxygen was at the via bottom during annealing. No leakage-current increase was observed, and electron energy loss analysis shows that no Cu was in SiO2, suggesting that MnSixOy layer has sufficient barrier properties for Cu, and that the concept of self-forming barrier process works in Cu dual-damascene interconnects. Via chain yield of more than 90% and 50% reduction in via resistance were obtained as compared with physical vapor deposited tantalum barrier, because there is no barrier at the via bottom. In addition, no failure in the stress-induced voiding measurement was found even after a 1600-h testing. No failure in electromigration (EM) testing was found, as the electron flow is from the lower level interconnects through via up to upper level interconnects even after 1000-h testing. At least, four times EM lifetime improvement was obtained in the case of electron flow from upper level interconnect through via down to lower level interconnects. Significant EM lifetime improvement is due to no flux divergence site at the via bottom, resulting from there being no bottom barrier at the via.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering