High-Resolution Velocity Analysis Method Using the ℓ-1 Norm Regularized Least-Squares Method for Pavement Inspection

Li Yi, Lilong Zou, Kazunori Takahashi, Motoyuki Sato

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


We propose a high-resolution velocity analysis method to estimate the electromagnetic wave propagation velocity in subsurface medium. The estimation is achieved by applying the ℓ-1 norm regularized least-squares method to the conventional common-midpoint (CMP) velocity analysis algorithm. The proposed method can provide not only higher resolution than the conventional velocity analysis method, but can also be applied with a coarse sampling array system, such as our array ground penetrating radar YAKUMO, which returns eight CMP traces within a two meter width. The main purpose of this approach is for precise pavement inspection at shallow depths. We applied this method to both a simulated dataset and real data acquired by YAKUMO at a model airport taxiway to detect the slight velocity changes caused by millimeter-thin cracks filled with air or water within the 15 cm-thick asphalt pavement. In both cases slight velocity changes of about 0.005 m/ns can be detected, and the difference between air- and water-filled cracks can be distinguished. Also, this method is applied to a data acquired at airport taxi-way, the damaged parts are detected successfully and shows good agreement with the corning results. The results indicate that the proposed method is effective for pavement inspection, especially in the presence of thin cracks that cannot be seen directly with the reflected signal.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1005-1015
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Mar


  • Ground penetrating radar (GPR)
  • inspection
  • least-squares methods
  • sparse array antennas

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computers in Earth Sciences
  • Atmospheric Science


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