Oxidative stress in renal mesangial cell causes diabetic glomerular changes. High glucose levels and angiotensin II (Ang II) are known to stimulate superoxide production in renal mesangial cells. However, it has been unclear whether Ang II stimulation and pre-conditioning with high glucose affects the same pathway of superoxide production in renal mesangial cells or not. In this study, we examined the levels of oxidative stress under Ang II stimulation in renal mesangial cells preincubated for six hours at various glucose levels. Intracellular levels of reactive oxidative species (ROS) were measured using dihydroethidium or 5′,6′-chloromethyl- 2′,7′ dichlorodihydro-fluorescein diacetate, which facilitates the detection of intracellular ROS under real-time fluorescent microscope. Ang II-induced elevated intracellular ROS levels were detected only when the cells were pre-incubated with high levels of glucose (13.5 mM, 27.8 mM), but was not detected under normal glucose condition (5.5 mM). Production of Ang II-induced intracellular ROS was higher under pre-treatment with 27.8 mM glucose compared to pretreatment with 13.5 mM glucose level. This ROS production in mesangial cells was induced within several minutes of the initiation of Ang II stimulation under high glucose levels. The production of intracellular ROS was significantly reduced in the presence of angiotensin II type1-receptor (AT1R) antagonist, whereas it was augmented in the presence of angiotensin II type2-receptor antagonist. In conclusion, Ang II-induced oxidative stress was augmented by high glucose levels and ROS levels were further alleviated in the presence of AT1R antagonists.
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