Spontaneous ICH is an unusual and potentially disastrous event that may complicate primary and secondary hemostatic abnormalities. Among the primary abnormalities, deficiencies of coagulation factors I, VII, VIII, IX and XIII as well as von Willebrand factor have been clearly associated with ICH. Specific factor replacement or supportive management to normalize the hemostatic defect is indicated in each case. Among secondary alterations in hemostasis, thrombocytopenia, platelet function abnormalities, or factor consumption contribute to the risk of ICH in patients with ITP, TTP, disseminated intravascular coagulation, myeloproliferative or myelodysplastic disorders, and exposure to certain medications. The precise incidence of spontaneous hemorrhage among these disorders is unknown but low. Platelet transfusion and fibrinogen replacement are appropriate in specific cases; however, treatment of the underlying cause is usually required. The association of hemorrhage with antithrombotic agents in several settings is better defined. Cessation of the medication is required in each instance. Fibrinogen replacement may be required after the use of fibrinolytic agents. In all cases, an assessment of the precise hemostatic defect is recommended.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Neurology