Bovine torovirus (BToV)-Aichi, recently isolated in cultured cells, showed hemagglutination (HA) activity, although the virus has a truncated hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein, judging from its gene structure, indicating the existence of another viral protein with HA activity. We examined whether the spike (S) protein possesses HA activity. A BToV antiserum used in this study, reactive to S but not to HE, inhibited HA activity. Furthermore, cells infected with BToV and those expressing S showed hemadsorption (HAD) activity, which was inhibited by the anti-BToV serum; however, HAD activity by expressed HE was not blocked. These data indicate that the S protein of BToV-Aichi is responsible for its HA activity.
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