A 1:1 mixture of pseudoenantiomeric aminomethylenehelicene (P)-tetramer and (M)-pentamer formed three states, namely, the heterodouble helices B and C and the random coil A. At high temperatures, A is the most stable. At low temperatures, C is the most stable, and the structural changes from A to the metastable state B to the product C occur, where B and C have pseudoenantiomeric helical structures. Heating then converts C to A. Essentially, all the molecules change their structure from A to B to C to A. Various nonequilibrium reversible thermodynamic responses appeared depending on thermal conditions: The metastable states A and B can be interconverted with thermal hysteresis without forming C in a far-from-equilibrium manner; three-state hysteresis occurs; states A and B can be frozen at low temperatures and defrosted by warming. An energy and population model for the three-state switching is given, involving inversion of thermodynamic stability and thermal hysteresis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Colloid and Surface Chemistry