We investigate a heating phenomenon in periodically driven integrable systems that can be mapped to free-fermion models. We find that heating to the high-temperature state, which is a typical scenario in nonintegrable systems, can also appear in integrable time-periodic systems; the amount of energy absorption rises drastically near a frequency threshold where the Floquet-Magnus expansion diverges. As the driving period increases, we also observe that the effective temperatures of the generalized Gibbs ensemble for conserved quantities go to infinity. By the use of the scaling analysis, we reveal that, in the limit of infinite system size and driving period, the steady state after a long time is equivalent to the infinite-temperature state. We obtain the asymptotic behavior L-1 and T-2 as to how the steady state approaches the infinite-temperature state as the system size L and the driving period T increase.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)