Health practices and mortality in Japan: Combined effects of smoking, drinking, walking and body mass index in the Miyagi Cohort Study

Yoshitaka Tsubono, Yayoi Koizumi, Naoki Nakaya, Kazuki Fujita, Hideko Takahashi, Atsushi Hozawa, Yoko Suzuki, Shinichi Kuriyama, Ichiro Tsuji, Akira Fukao, Shigeru Hisamichi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Evidence is limited regarding the association between the combinations of multiple health practices and mortality. Methods: In 1990, 28,333 men and women in Miyagi Prefecture in rural northern Japan (40-64 year of age) completed a self-administered questionnaire. A lifestyle score was calculated by adding the number of high-risk practices (smoking, consuming ≥22.8 g alcohol/d, walking <1 hr/d, body mass index <1 8.5 or ≥30.0). Cox regression was used to estimate relative risk (RR) of mortality according to the lifestyle score, with adjustment for age, education, marital status, past history of diseases, and dietary variables. During 11 years of follow-up, 1,200 subjects had died. Results: We observed linear increase in risk of death associated with increasing number of high-risk practices: compared with men who had no high-risk practices, multivariate RRs for men who had 1 to 4 practices were 1.20, 1,66, 1.94, and 3.96, respectively (P for trend<0.001), and corresponding RRs for women were 1.31, 2.14, 3.98, 5.56, respectively (P for trend<0.001). A unit increase in the number of high-risk practices corresponded to being 2.8 and 4.8 years older for men and women, respectively. Conclusions: In this prospective cohort study of middle-aged men and women in rural Japan, a larger number of high-risk practices was associated with linear increase in risk of all-cause mortality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S39-S45
Journaljournal of epidemiology
Volume14
Issue numberSUPPL. 1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2004

Keywords

  • Alcohol
  • Body mass index
  • Mortality
  • Smoking
  • Walking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology

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