Health Impact of Agricultural Drainage Water for Farmers in the West Nile Delta

Tsutomu Okubo, Akinori Iguchi, Shuya Tanaka, Shota Uchida, Tadashi Tagawa, Mamoru Oshiki, Nobuo Araki, Ahmed Tawfik, Masanobu Takahashi, Kengo Kubota, Hideki Harada, Shigeki Uemura

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The use of untreated sewage in agriculture is gaining attention as a result of rapid urbanization and increased global water scarcity. However, the incidence of waterborne infections among farmers in such areas is increasing due to the exposure of contaminated sewage. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk and health impact related to waterborne infections in farmers using agricultural drainage wastewater (ADW) for irrigation in the West Nile Delta. A total of nine viruses were detected by quantitative PCR and quantitative real-time PCR in ADW samples collected from the Dishody drain, which was found to be the most polluted branch drain in the region through a water pollution survey. The results of quantitative microbial risk assessment and disability-adjusted life year evaluation indicated that ADW of the Dishody drain is not acceptable for irrigation reuse. A water recirculation system including appropriate sewage treatment technology must be quickly installed to reduce microbial risks for farmers in the West Nile Delta.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)319-325
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Apr 1


  • Agricultural drainage wastewater
  • Human pathogenic virus
  • Microfluidic quantitative PCR
  • Quantitative microbial risk assessment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)


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