Germanium (Ge) single crystals with an extremely low density of or almost free from grown-in dislocations were grown by the Czochralski technique using boron oxide (B2O3) and a silica crucible, where generation of GeO2 particles, harmful for dislocationfree crystal growth, was effectively suppressed by the partially-or fully-coverage of the melt surface with B2O3 liquid. In a further evolution of the above growth technique, Ge crystals with various concentrations of interstitially dissolved oxygen atoms up to 5.5 × 1017 cm-3, two orders higher than that in a conventionally grown Ge crystals, were grown by full coverage of the Ge melt surface with B2O3 liquid and addition of GeO2 powder. The effective segregation coefficient of oxygen atoms was estimated to be 1.0-1.4. These Ge crystals are expected for application as high quality and thermo-mechanically stable materials, free from grow-in dislocations, for high-speed ULSI devices and GaAs solar cell substrates.
|Title of host publication||Germanium|
|Subtitle of host publication||Properties, Production and Applications|
|Publisher||Nova Science Publishers, Inc.|
|Number of pages||17|
|Publication status||Published - 2012 Dec 1|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Chemical Engineering(all)