To evaluate tumor blood flow using 15O-water positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) before and after chemotherapy with bevacizumab, and to investigate the effects of bevacizumab on tumor blood flow changes and progression-free survival (PFS). Twelve patients with NSCLC were enrolled. Six patients underwent chemotherapy with bevacizumab and the other six without bevacizumab. 15O-water dynamic PET scans were performed within 1 week before the start of chemotherapy and within 1 week after the first day of chemotherapy. Tumor blood flow was analyzed quantitatively using a single one-tissue compartment model with the correction of pulmonary circulation blood volume and arterial blood volume via an image-derived input function. In the bevacizumab group, mean tumor blood flow was statistically significantly reduced post-chemotherapy (pre-chemotherapy 0.27 ± 0.14 mL/cm3/min, post-chemotherapy 0.18 ± 0.12 mL/cm3/min). In the no bevacizumab group, there was no significant difference between mean tumor perfusion pre-chemotherapy (0.42 ± 0.42 mL/cm3/min) and post-chemotherapy (0.40 ± 0.27 mL/cm3/min). In the bevacizumab group, there was a positive correlation between the blood flow ratio (tumor blood flow post-chemotherapy/tumor blood flow pre-chemotherapy) and PFS (correlation coefficient 0.94). Mean tumor blood flow decreases after bevacizumab administration and was positively correlated with longer PFS.
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