Unique properties of graphene are combined to enable graphene plasmonic devices that could revolutionize the terahertz (THz) electronic technology. A high value of the carrier mobility allows us to excite resonant plasma waves. The graphene bipolar nature allows for different mechanisms of plasma wave excitation. Graphene bilayer and multilayer structures make possible improved THz device configurations. The ability of graphene to form a high quality heterostructure with h-BN, black phosphorus, and other materials systems supports advanced heterostructure devices comprised of the best properties of graphene and other emerging materials. In particular, using black phosphorus compounds for cooling electron-hole plasma in graphene could dramatically improve the conditions for THz lasing. High optical phonon energy allows for reaching higher plasma frequencies that are supported by high sheet carrier densities in graphene. Recent improvements in graphene technology combined with a better understanding of the device physics of graphene THz plasmonics and graphene plasmonic device designs hold promise to make graphene THz plasmonic technology one of the key graphene applications. Commercialization of plasmonic graphene technology is facing the same challenges as other graphene applications, which have difficulties in producing uniform large graphene layers, bilayers, and heterostructures of high quality and making good low resistance stable Ohmic contacts. The time projection for large scale graphene electronic device applications now extends into the 2030s. However, emerging graphene mass production technologies might bring commercial applications of the graphene plasmonic terahertz technology closer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)