Global Maps of Solar Wind Electron Modification by Electrostatic Waves Above the Lunar Day Side: Kaguya Observations

Yuki Harada, Yoshiya Kasahara, Masaki N. Nishino, Satoshi Kurita, Yoshifumi Saito, Shoichiro Yokota, Atsushi Kumamoto, Futoshi Takahashi, Hisayoshi Shimizu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The Moon drives observable perturbations in the upstream solar wind in a similar manner to the terrestrial foreshock. Recent observations suggested that lunar dayside electrostatic waves can arise from two different driving mechanisms, both involving reflected particles from lunar crustal magnetic fields. However, their association with the global distribution of lunar magnetic anomalies have not been fully characterized. Here we exploit polar orbiting Kaguya to generate first global maps of electrostatic waves and solar wind electron modification above the day side of the Moon. The maps clearly demonstrate that the two signatures are correlated with lunar crustal magnetic fields. Additionally, we observe different characteristics of electron modification for different interplanetary magnetic field orientations. The lunar crustal magnetic fields cause a wide range of reflected electron and ion intensities, thereby serving as a test bed to investigate the relative roles of reflected particles on wave excitation and particle heating.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2021GL095260
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Sept 16


  • electron cyclotron drift instability
  • electron two stream instability
  • electrostatic waves
  • Kaguya
  • Moon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Global Maps of Solar Wind Electron Modification by Electrostatic Waves Above the Lunar Day Side: Kaguya Observations'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this