Gibbs free energy and conditions of spinel (MgO·Al2O3) formation in liquid steel

Hiroyasu Itoh, Katsumori Fujii, Tetsuya Nagasaka, Mitsutaka Hino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


The formation conditions of spinel non-metallic inclusion during deoxidation with aluminum in secondary refining furnace with MgO lining were discussed in the present work. The thermodynamic data of deoxidation equilibrium with magnesium, calcium and aluminum in liquid iron were determined by the authors. The activities of oxygen and dissolved deoxidizer were evaluated the thermodynamic description by the first and second order interaction parameters including the cross product terms.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)86-90
Number of pages5
JournalSteel Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2003 Feb

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Metals and Alloys


Dive into the research topics of 'Gibbs free energy and conditions of spinel (MgO·Al2O3) formation in liquid steel'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this