Inappropriate gestational weight gain (GWG), either above or below the recommended values, has been associated with an increased risk of adverse obstetric outcomes. To evaluate the risks of GWG for foetal acidosis according to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and mode of delivery, we analysed women with singleton pregnancies between 2011 and 2014 in the Japan Environment and Children’s Study. Participants (n = 71,799) were categorised according to pre-pregnancy BMI. GWG was categorised into insufficient, appropriate, or excessive. Foetal acidosis was defined as umbilical artery pH (UmA-pH) < 7.20 or < 7.10. Multiple logistic regressions were performed for each BMI category to identify the risks of GWG for foetal acidosis, accounting for the mode of delivery. Excessive GWG was significantly associated with increased foetal acidosis in overweight women and in women whose pre-pregnancy BMI was 23.0–25.0 kg/m2 especially in those with vaginal deliveries. Conversely, excessive GWG was not significantly associated with increased foetal acidosis in obese women and in women whose pre-pregnancy BMI was ≥ 25.0 kg/m2.
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