Gestational trophoblastic tumors and recent clinical information

Takao Shimizu, Nobuo Yaegashi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Recent clinical advances in the field of gestational trophoblastic diseases are described. WHO modified its risk factor scoring system. This change was proposed to combine both the basic FIGO anatomic staging with the modified WHO risk factor scoring system. Patients who score as low-risk are treated with single agent chemotherapy, such as methotrexate (MTX), and patients refractory to MTX are treated with a combination chemotherapy, EMA/CO. Patients who score as high-risk are treated with EMA/CO, and patients refractory to the first line chemotherapy may be successfully treated with EP/EMA. Recent epidemiological data showed that women with complete hydatidiform moles could anticipate normal reproduction in the future. Studies found that pregnancies after treatment of molar pregnancy resulted in 69% full-term, live births; 8% premature deliveries; 1% ectopic pregnancies, and 0.5% stillbirths. First-trimester spontaneous abortions occurred in 17% of pregnancies, and major and minor malformations were detected in 0.4% of infants. Patients with hydatidiform mole were at increased risk of developing molar pregnancy in subsequent conceptions. After having one molar pregnancy, the risk of having molar disease in a future gestation was about 1%. The risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic tumors was increased by long-term oral contraceptive use before conception. In a large, multicenter, case-control study, the risk was shown to be increased in women who had ever used oral contraceptives, but was highest for women taking oral contraceptives during the cycle in which they became pregnant. Partial hydatidiform moles were never previously proven to transform into choriocarcinoma; however, a recent study with molecular techniques clearly showed that partial moles could transform into choriocarcinoma. All patients with suspected partial moles should be reviewed centrally and require hCG follow-up.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1363-1370
Number of pages8
JournalGan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2002 Aug

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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