Geranylgeraniol (GGOH), a natural isoprenoid found in plants, has anti-inflammatory effects via inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NFκB). However, its detailed mechanism has not yet been elucidated. Recent studies have revealed that isoprenoids can modulate signaling molecules in innate immune responses. We found that GGOH decreased the expression of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory genes in human macrophage-like THP-1 cells. Furthermore, we observed that the suppression of NFκB signaling proteins, in particular interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), occurred in GGOH-treated cells prior to LPS stimulation, suggesting an immunomodulatory effect. These results indicate that GGOH may modulate and help prevent excessive NFκB activation that can lead to numerous diseases.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry