Geomorphic features of surface ruptures associated with the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake in and around the downtown of Kumamoto City, and implications on triggered slip along active faults 2016 Kumamoto earthquake sequence and its impact on earthquake science and hazard assessment Manabu Hashimoto, Martha Savage, Takuya Nishimura and Haruo Horikawa 4. Seismology

Hideaki Goto, Hiroyuki Tsutsumi, Shinji Toda, Yasuhiro Kumahara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The ~30-km-long surface ruptures associated with the M w 7.0 (M j 7.3) earthquake at 01:25 JST on April 16 in Kumamoto Prefecture appeared along the previously mapped ~100-km-long active fault called the Futagawa-Hinagu fault zone (FHFZ). The surface ruptures appeared to have extended further west out of the main FHFZ into the Kumamoto Plain. Although InSAR analysis by Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) indicated coseismic surface deformation in and around the downtown of Kumamoto City, the surface ruptures have not been clearly mapped in the central part of the Kumamoto Plain, and whether there are other active faults other than the Futagawa fault in the Kumamoto Plain remained unclear. We produced topographical stereo images (anaglyph) from 5-m-mesh digital elevation model of GSI, which was generated from light detection and ranging data. We interpreted them and identified that several SW-sloping river terraces formed after the deposition of the pyroclastic flow deposits related to the latest large eruption of the Aso caldera (86.8-87.3 ka) are cut and deformed by several NW-trending flexure scarps down to the southwest. These 5.4-km-long scarps that cut across downtown Kumamoto were identified for the first time, and we name them as the Suizenji fault zone. Surface deformation such as continuous cracks, tilts, and monoclinal folding associated with the main shock of the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake was observed in the field along the fault zone. The amount of vertical deformation (~0.1 m) along this fault associated with the 2016 Kumamoto earthquake was quite small compared to the empirically calculated coseismic slip (0.5 m) based on the fault length. We thus suggest that the slip on this fault zone was triggered by the Kumamoto earthquake, but the fault zone has potential to generate an earthquake with larger slip that poses a high seismic risk in downtown Kumamoto area.[Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Article number26
Journalearth, planets and space
Volume69
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Dec 1

Keywords

  • 2016 Kumamoto earthquake
  • Active fault
  • Digital elevation model
  • Kumamoto Plain
  • Suizenji fault zone
  • Surface rupture
  • Tectonic landform

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geology
  • Space and Planetary Science

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