Coffin-Siris syndrome (CSS) is a rare congenitalmalformation syndrome, recently found to be caused bymutations in several genes encoding components of the BAF complex. To date, 109 patients have been reported with their mutations: SMARCB1 (12%), SMARCA4 (11%), SMARCE1 (2%), ARID1A (7%), ARID1B (65%), and PHF6 (2%). We review genotype-phenotype correlation of all previously reported patients with mutations in SMARCB1, SMARCA4, SMARCE1, and ARID1A through reassessment of their clinical andmolecular findings. Cardinal features of CSS included variable degrees of intellectual disability (ID) predominantly affecting speech, sucking/feeding difficulty, and craniofacial (thick eyebrows, long eyelashes), digital (hypoplastic 5th fingers or toes, hypoplastic 5th fingernails or toenails), and other characteristics (hypertrichosis). In addition, patients withSMARCB1 mutations had severe neurodevelopmental deficits including severe ID, seizures, CNS structural abnormalities, and no expressive words as well as scoliosis. Especially, those with a recurrent mutation "p. Lys364del" represented strikingly similar phenotypes including characteristic facial coarseness. Patients with SMARCA4 mutations had less coarse craniofacial appearances and behavioral abnormalities. Patients with SMARCE1 mutations had a wide spectrum of manifestations fromsevere to moderate ID. Patients with ARID1A also had a wide spectrum of manifestations from severe ID and serous internal complications that could result in early death to mild ID. Mutations in SMARCB1, SMARCA4, and SMARCE1 are expected to exert dominant-negative or gain-of-function effects, whereas those in ARID1A are expected to exert loss-of-function effects.
|Number of pages||14|
|Journal||American Journal of Medical Genetics, Part C: Seminars in Medical Genetics|
|Publication status||Published - 2014 Sep|
- BAF (mSWI/SNF) complex
- Coffin-siris syndrome
- Intellectual disability (ID)
ASJC Scopus subject areas