Background: The gender differences in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) remain to be fully elucidated in the Japanese population. Methods and Results: We examined gender differences in clinical characteristics, treatment and long-term outcome in 4,736 consecutive CHF patients in stage C/D (mean age, 69 years) out of 10,219 patients registered in the CHF Registry, named CHART-2 Study (NCT 00418041). Compared with male patients (68%, n=3,234), female patients (32%, n=1,502) were 3.8 years older and had lower prevalence of ischemic heart disease, diabetes, smoking, myocardial infarction and cancer. At baseline, women had higher prevalence of preserved left ventricular function but had higher NYHA functional class and increased brain natriuretic peptide level. In women, aspirin, β-blockers and statins were less frequently used and diuretics were more frequently used. Crude mortality rate was similar between the genders during the median 3.1-year follow-up (52.4/1,000 and 47.3/1,000 person-years for women and men, respectively, P=0.225). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, women had a reduced risk of mortality (adjusted HR, 0.791; 95% CI: 0.640-0.979, P=0.031). Conclusions: Substantial gender differences exist in stage C/D CHF patients in real-world practice in Japan. Although female CHF patients had better survival than male patients after adjustment for baseline differences, crude mortality rate was similar between the genders, possibly reflecting relatively severer clinical manifestations in women.
- Gender difference
- Heart failure
- Observational study
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine