From molecular footprints of disease to new therapeutic interventions in diabetic nephropathy

Toshio Miyata, Makoto Yamamoto, Yuko Izuhara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Proteins are particularly attractive targets for product analysis, which is used to understand pathology. Protein modifications, such as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), serve as footprints of biochemical processes and also help in the search for novel agents that efficiently inhibit protein damage. Interestingly, several medical agents that are used clinically interfere with oxidative protein damage through different mechanisms characteristic of their chemical structures. We recently found that angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) lower the in vitro formation of the AGEs pentosidine and carboxymethyllysine. Their inhibition for AGE formation is more striking than aminoguanidine. Unlike aminoguanidine, ARBs and ACEIs do not trap reactive carbonyl precursors of AGEs. Rather, they inhibit AGE formation, possibly as a result of their potent ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and to chelate the transition metals necessary for the Fenton reaction. We tested their AGE-lowering ability in vivo in a unique type-2 diabetic model with nephropathic SHR/NDmcr-cp rats, which exhibits the metabolic syndrome (obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia) in addition to hypertension. Obesity and associated metabolic derangements, in addition to hypertension, markedly accelerate renal injury. Expectedly, correction of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia partially but significantly improves renal injury. A low-calorie diet greatly improves renal injury despite persistent hypertension. Among antihypertensive agents, ARBs, unlike nifedipine and atenolol, are renoprotective despite persistent metabolic syndrome, but their action is independent of blood pressure lowering and is observed in a dose-dependent manner despite the complete blockade of angiotensin II receptor. Interestingly, the improvement of renal injury by ARBs as well as a low-calorie diet is associated with a significant reduction in local oxidative stress and AGE formation in the kidney. During the characterization of the AGE-lowering profile of our chemical compound libraries (∼2000), we identified several inhibitors of oxidative stress and advanced glycation. They are indeed renoprotective, independently of correction of hypertension and metabolic syndrome, in experimental diabetic nephropathy and other nephritis models. Altogether, our data are in good agreement with the recent therapeutic concept for diabetic nephropathy that multiple risk factor interventions are critical in the treatment of diabetic renal injury, and further implicate a therapeutic potential of inhibition of oxidative stress and advanced glycation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)740-749
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 2005 Jan 1
Externally publishedYes


  • AGE inhibitor
  • Advanced glycation end products (AGEs)
  • Hypertension
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Oxidative stress
  • Protein modification
  • Renoprotection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • History and Philosophy of Science


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