The 63,605 damaged buildings from the 2011 Tohoku-oki tsunami in Ishinomaki were used to develop 52 fragility curves using linear regression. The data comprise the damage level and the measured inundation depth for each building. In agreement with previous studies, the present results indicate that reinforced concrete and steel buildings with three stories or more perform better under tsunami loading. Performance with respect to their intended function was found to depend mainly on structural material. Moreover, based on Japan's design code for earthquake-resistant buildings, buildings constructed after 1981 do not display a better performance compared to more recent constructions. Finally, the results show that for the same inundation depth, a higher damage probability exists along a ria coast due to higher flow velocities, confirmed by numerical simulation and survivor videos. These new findings are useful for building damage assessment, town reconstruction, and comparison of vulnerability functions in future studies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology