The conversion of an amorphous carbon film under Al nanoparticles to giant onion-like fullerenes (GOLFs), which was induced by electron irradiation in a transmission electron microscope, has been investigated. It has become clear that the nucleation and growth processes forming GOLFs from an amorphous carbon film consist of three steps: first, the flakes of GOLFs are induced under Al nanoparticles; second, the flakes grow into a few ellipsoidal graphitic shells; and third, a gradual reorganization occurs into structures comprising the quasi-spheroidal graphitic shells that are GOLFs. Fullerenes containing Al nanoparticles and Al atoms have been generated through these processes. It is suggested that the mechanism involves collisions with high-energy electrons and a catalytic effect of Al, while any temperature rise due to electron irradiation seems to be negligibly small. Acta Metallurgica Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Ceramics and Composites
- Polymers and Plastics
- Metals and Alloys