The microstructure change by warm deformation in high-carbon steels with different initial ferrite (α) + cementite (θ) duplex microstructures has been examined. Three kinds of initial structures, i.e., pearlite, α+spheroidized θ and tempered martensite, were prepared using Fe-0.8C-2Mn and Fe-1.0C-1.4Cr alloys and compressed by 30-75% at 973K at a strain rate of 5×10-4 s-1. Equiaxed fine α grains, approximately 2μm in diameter and mostly bounded by high-angle boundaries, are formed with spheroidized θ by dynamic recrystallization during compression of the pearlite by 75%. When the (α+θ) duplex structure containing spheroidized θ was deformed, the original α grains become elongated and only subgrains are formed within them by dynamic recovery. For the tempered martensite, equiaxed α grains similar to those in the deformed pearlite were obtained after 50% compression. This indicates that the critical strain needed for the completion of dynamic recrystallization of α is smaller for the tempered martensite than for the other structures.