Five-card secure computations using unequal division shuffle

Akihiro Nishimura, Takuya Nishida, Yu-Ichi Hayashi, Takaaki Mizuki, Hideaki Sone

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

17 Citations (Scopus)


Card-based cryptographic protocols can perform secure computation of Boolean functions. Cheung et al. recently presented an elegant protocol that securely produces a hidden AND value using five cards; however, it fails with a probability of 1/2. The protocol uses an unconventional shuffle operation called unequal division shuffle; after a sequence of five cards is divided into a two-card portion and a threecard portion, these two portions are randomly switched. In this paper, we first show that the protocol proposed by Cheung et al. securely produces not only a hidden AND value but also a hidden OR value (with a probability of 1/2). We then modify their protocol such that, even when it fails, we can still evaluate the AND value. Furthermore, we present two five-card copy protocols using unequal division shuffle. Because the most efficient copy protocol currently known requires six cards, our new protocols improve upon the existing results.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationTheory and Practice of Natural Computing - 4th International Conference, TPNC 2015, Proceedings
EditorsAdrian-Horia Dediu, Carlos Martín-Vide, Luis Magdalena
PublisherSpringer Verlag
Number of pages12
ISBN (Print)9783319268408
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Event4th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Natural Computing, TPNC 2015 - Mieres, Spain
Duration: 2015 Dec 152015 Dec 16

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349


Other4th International Conference on Theory and Practice of Natural Computing, TPNC 2015


  • Card games
  • Card-based protocols
  • Cryptography
  • Cryptography without computers
  • Real-life hands-on cryptography
  • Secure multi-party computations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)


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