Major toxins from skin extracts of 18 specimens of six Atelopus toad species collected in Panama were analyzed. Chiriquitoxin was identified using 1H NMR in A. limosus and A. glyphus for the first time. Zetekitoxin in A. zeteki and tetrodotoxin in A. varius, A. chiriquiensis and A. zeteki were identified again. Furthermore, A. certus was suggested to contain a water-soluble toxin other than tetrodotoxin.
- H NMR
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