First Detection of Tetrodotoxins in the Cotylean Flatworm Prosthiostomum trilineatum

Rei Suo, Maho Kashitani, Hikaru Oyama, Masaatsu Adachi, Ryota Nakahigashi, Ryo Sakakibara, Toshio Nishikawa, Haruo Sugita, Shiro Itoi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Several polyclad flatworm species are known to contain high levels of tetrodotoxin (TTX), but currently TTX-bearing flatworms seem to be restricted to specific Planocera lineages belonging to the suborder Acotylea. During our ongoing study of flatworm toxins, high concentrations of TTXs were detected for the first time in the flatworm Prosthiostomum trilineatum, suborder Cotylea, from the coastal area of Hayama, Kanagawa, Japan. Toxin levels were investigated by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), revealing that this species contains comparable concentrations of toxins as seen in planocerid flatworms such as Planocera multitentaculata. This finding indicated that there may be other species with significant levels of TTXs. The distribution of TTXs among other flatworm species is thus of great interest.

Original languageEnglish
JournalMarine Drugs
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Jan 18


  • Cotylea
  • LC-MS/MS
  • Polycladida
  • analog
  • flatworms
  • tetrodotoxin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Drug Discovery


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