Ferrite Formation Dynamics and Microstructure Due to Inclusion Engineering in Low-Alloy Steels by Ti2O3 and TiN Addition

Wangzhong Mu, Hiroyuki Shibata, Peter Hedström, Pär Göran Jönsson, Keiji Nakajima

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    21 Citations (Scopus)


    The dynamics of intragranular ferrite (IGF) formation in inclusion engineered steels with either Ti2O3 or TiN addition were investigated using in situ high temperature confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the inclusions and the final microstructure after continuous cooling transformation was investigated using electron probe microanalysis and electron backscatter diffraction, respectively. It was found that there is a significant effect of the chemical composition of the inclusions, the cooling rate, and the prior austenite grain size on the phase fractions and the starting temperatures of IGF and grain boundary ferrite (GBF). The fraction of IGF is larger in the steel with Ti2O3 addition compared to the steel with TiN addition after the same thermal cycle has been imposed. The reason for this difference is the higher potency of the TiOx phase as nucleation sites for IGF formation compared to the TiN phase, which was supported by calculations using classical nucleation theory. The IGF fraction increases with increasing prior austenite grain size, while the fraction of IGF in both steels was the highest for the intermediate cooling rate of 70 °C/min, since competing phase transformations were avoided, the structure of the IGF was though refined with increasing cooling rate. Finally, regarding the starting temperatures of IGF and GBF, they decrease with increasing cooling rate and the starting temperature of GBF decreases with increasing grain size, while the starting temperature of IGF remains constant irrespective of grain size.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)2133-2147
    Number of pages15
    JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science
    Issue number4
    Publication statusPublished - 2016 Aug 1

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Condensed Matter Physics
    • Mechanics of Materials
    • Metals and Alloys
    • Materials Chemistry


    Dive into the research topics of 'Ferrite Formation Dynamics and Microstructure Due to Inclusion Engineering in Low-Alloy Steels by Ti2O3 and TiN Addition'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this