Femtosecond X-ray-induced explosion of C 60 at extreme intensity

B. F. Murphy, T. Osipov, Z. Jurek, L. Fang, S. K. Son, M. Mucke, J. H.D. Eland, V. Zhaunerchyk, R. Feifel, L. Avaldi, P. Bolognesi, C. Bostedt, J. D. Bozek, J. Grilj, M. Guehr, L. J. Frasinski, J. Glownia, D. T. Ha, K. Hoffmann, E. KukkB. K. McFarland, C. Miron, E. Sistrunk, R. J. Squibb, K. Ueda, R. Santra, N. Berrah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

100 Citations (Scopus)


Understanding molecular femtosecond dynamics under intense X-ray exposure is critical to progress in biomolecular imaging and matter under extreme conditions. Imaging viruses and proteins at an atomic spatial scale and on the time scale of atomic motion requires rigorous, quantitative understanding of dynamical effects of intense X-ray exposure. Here we present an experimental and theoretical study of C 60 molecules interacting with intense X-ray pulses from a free-electron laser, revealing the influence of processes not previously reported. Our work illustrates the successful use of classical mechanics to describe all moving particles in C 60, an approach that scales well to larger systems, for example, biomolecules. Comparisons of the model with experimental data on C 60 ion fragmentation show excellent agreement under a variety of laser conditions. The results indicate that this modelling is applicable for X-ray interactions with any extended system, even at higher X-ray dose rates expected with future light sources.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4281
JournalNature communications
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Jun 27

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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