Fault-Injection Attacks Against NIST’s Post-Quantum Cryptography Round 3 KEM Candidates

Keita Xagawa, Akira Ito, Rei Ueno, Junko Takahashi, Naofumi Homma

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

We investigate all NIST PQC Round 3 KEM candidates from the viewpoint of fault-injection attacks: Classic McEliece, Kyber, NTRU, Saber, BIKE, FrodoKEM, HQC, NTRU Prime, and SIKE. All KEM schemes use variants of the Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation, so the equality test with re-encryption in decapsulation is critical. We survey effective key-recovery attacks when we can skip the equality test. We found the existing key-recovery attacks against Kyber, NTRU, Saber, FrodoKEM, HQC, one of two KEM schemes in NTRU Prime, and SIKE. We propose a new key-recovery attack against the other KEM scheme in NTRU Prime. We also report an attack against BIKE that leads to leakage of information of secret keys. The open-source pqm4 library contains all KEM schemes except Classic McEliece and HQC. We show that giving a single instruction-skipping fault in the decapsulation processes leads to skipping the equality test virtually for Kyber, NTRU, Saber, BIKE, and SIKE. We also report the experimental attacks against them. We also report the implementation of NTRU Prime allows chosen-ciphertext attacks freely and the timing side-channel of FrodoKEM reported in Guo, Johansson, and Nilsson (CRYPTO 2020) remains, while there are no such bugs in their NIST PQC Round 3 submissions.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Cryptology – ASIACRYPT 2021 - 27th International Conference on the Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security, Proceedings, Part 2
EditorsMehdi Tibouchi, Huaxiong Wang
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Pages33-61
Number of pages29
ISBN (Print)9783030920746
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Event27th International Conference on Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security, ASIACRYPT 2021 - Virtual, Online
Duration: 2021 Dec 62021 Dec 10

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume13091 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349

Conference

Conference27th International Conference on Theory and Application of Cryptology and Information Security, ASIACRYPT 2021
CityVirtual, Online
Period21/12/621/12/10

Keywords

  • Fault-injection attacks
  • KEM
  • NIST PQC standardization
  • Post-quantum cryptography
  • The Fujisaki-Okamoto transformation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)

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