Background: Submucosal fibrosis observed during colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an important factor related to incomplete resection. Biopsy is generally accepted as having the potential to elicit submucosal fibrosis, but few reports have presented definitive proof. This study investigated the relation between submucosal fibrosis and colorectal ESD outcomes and assessed factors related to fibrosis, including pretreatment biopsy. Methods: After reviewing 369 records of colorectal ESD performed between January 2011 and December 2016, we assessed the relation between fibrosis and ESD outcomes. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed fibrosis risk factors. Results: Severe fibrosis was related significantly to ESD outcomes such as the mean procedure time (p < 0.001), en bloc resection rate (p < 0.001), and R0 resection rate (p = 0.011). Multivariate analyses indicated residual lesions (ORs 175.4, p < 0.001), pretreatment biopsy (ORs 8.30, p = 0.002), nongranular-type laterally spreading tumors (LST-NG; ORs 5.86, p = 0.025), and invasive carcinoma (ORs 5.83, p = 0.03) as independent risk factors of severe fibrosis. In each macroscopic type, LST-NG was more strongly related to fibrosis induced by pretreatment than granular-type laterally spreading tumors with adjust ORs of 50.8 and 4.69. Conclusions: Pretreatment biopsy causes submucosal fibrosis resulting in prolonged procedure times and incomplete resection. These findings suggest important benefits of avoiding biopsy before ESD.
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