Fabrication of Al-Bi frozen emulsion alloys due to high-intense ultrasound irradiation

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2 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study is to develop an ultrasound-assisted process for fabrication of frozen emulsion alloys, which are a type of miscibility gap alloys (MGAs). Al-Bi system was used to produce 2-kg ingots of Al-Bi frozen emulsion alloys in the following two steps: (1) emulsification treatment of Al-Bi melt by introducing high-intense ultrasound vibrations into it in a temperature range of Al-Bi binodal decomposition, and (2) casting of the melt into a book mold. The ingot samples were analyzed with SEM/EDX for the alloy microstructure and bismuth particle distribution. Besides, cold model experiments, thermodynamic and CFD numerical simulations were performed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of emulsification including droplet fragmentation and acoustic streaming. The results reveal that the alloys with Bi concentration of 4%~9.4% can be fabricated by the proposed technique. Within this range, 90% of Bi particles have a diameter under 10 µm, and the majority of them are incorporated into aluminum grains. Especially, a uniform microstructure is obtained when concentration of Bi is less than 6%. Emulsification was found to occur at the interface between two liquids when cavitation bubbles collapse in the interface vicinity followed by high-velocity micro-jetting which is responsible for the emulsion droplet formation. Another positive effect of ultrasound is acoustic streaming which is responsible for the effective agitation of molten bath preventing the sedimentation of Bi droplets during the ultrasound treatment and casting operation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number158231
JournalJournal of Alloys and Compounds
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Apr 5


  • Acoustic streaming
  • Bismuth particle distribution
  • Cavitation
  • Metal emulsification
  • Ultrasound vibration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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