Extending whole slide imaging: Color darkfield internal reflection illumination (DIRI) for biological applications

Yoshihiro Kawano, Kana Namiki, Atsushi Miyawaki, Takuji Ishikawa

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Whole slide imaging (WSI) is a useful tool for multi-modal imaging, and in our work, we have often combined WSI with darkfield microscopy. However, traditional darkfield microscopy cannot use a single condenser to support high- and low-numerical-aperture objectives, which limits the modality of WSI. To overcome this limitation, we previously developed a darkfield internal reflection illumination (DIRI) microscope using white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Although the developed DIRI is useful for biological applications, substantial problems remain to be resolved. In this study, we propose a novel illumination technique called color DIRI. The use of three-color LEDs dramatically improves the capability of the system, such that color DIRI (1) enables optimization of the illumination color; (2) can be combined with an oil objective lens; (3) can produce fluorescence excitation illumination; (4) can adjust the wavelength of light to avoid cell damage or reactions; and (5) can be used as a photostimulator. These results clearly illustrate that the proposed color DIRI can significantly extend WSI modalities for biological applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0167774
JournalPloS one
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Jan 1

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • General


Dive into the research topics of 'Extending whole slide imaging: Color darkfield internal reflection illumination (DIRI) for biological applications'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this