Background and Objective: While the primary role of cementoblasts is to synthesize the components of cementum, we have reported that immortalized murine cementoblasts (OCCM-30) express functional Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and -4, and these receptors are involved in the alteration of gene expression associated with cementum formation and in the upregulation of osteoclastogenesis- associated molecules, such as receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand. We hypothesized that cementoblasts express a wide range of pattern recognition receptors in a manner comparable to osteoblasts, which are known to express various functional TLRs and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) proteins. Material and Methods: Murine cementoblasts and pre-osteoblasts were used. The gene and protein levels of TLRs/NODs were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and activated NF-κB were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The expressions of TLR-1, -2, -4, -6 and -9, CD14, NOD-1 and -2 were detected in cementoblasts and were upregulated upon differentiation induced by ascorbic acid. Similar patterns were observed in the mouse MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cell line. Synthetic ligands, Pam3CSK4 (TLR-1/2 agonist), Pam2CGDPKHPKSF (TLR-2/6 agonist), lipid A (TLR4 agonist), CpG DNA (TLR-9 agonist), FK565 (NOD1 agonist) and muramyldipeptide (NOD2 agonist), effectively induced NF-κB activation in cementoblasts and/or ascorbic acid-treated cementoblasts. Furthermore, these ligands induced IL-6 production in a NF-κB-dependent manner in cementoblasts and/or ascorbic acid-treated cementoblasts. Conclusion: These results indicate that cementoblasts possess functional TLR and NOD signaling systems and have a similar capacity to osteoblasts in responding to a wide variety of pathogens.
- Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain protein
- Toll-like receptor
ASJC Scopus subject areas