In this work, we investigate conditions which ensure the existence of an exponentially localized Wannier basis for a given periodic hamiltonian. We extend previous results [Panati, G., Ann. Henri Poincare8, 995-1011 (2007)10.1007/s00023-007-0326-8] to include periodic zero flux magnetic fields which is the setting also investigated by Kuchment [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor.42, 025203 (2009)10.1088/1751-8113/42/2/025203]. The new notion of magnetic symmetry plays a crucial rôle; to a large class of symmetries for a non-magnetic system, one can associate "magnetic" symmetries of the related magnetic system. Observing that the existence of an exponentially localized Wannier basis is equivalent to the triviality of the so-called Bloch bundle, a rank m hermitian vector bundle over the Brillouin zone, we prove that magnetic time-reversal symmetry is sufficient to ensure the triviality of the Bloch bundle in spatial dimension d = 1, 2, 3. For d = 4, an exponentially localized Wannier basis exists provided that the trace per unit volume of a suitable function of the Fermi projection vanishes. For d > 4 and d ≤ 2m (stable rank regime) only the exponential localization of a subset of Wannier functions is shown; this improves part of the analysis of Kuchment [J. Phys. A: Math. Theor.42, 025203 (2009)10.1088/1751-8113/42/2/025203]. Finally, for d > 4 and d > 2m (unstable rank regime) we show that the mere analysis of Chern classes does not suffice in order to prove triviality and thus exponential localization.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
- Mathematical Physics