Experimental and theoretical study of Ti20Zr20Hf 20Nb20X20 (X = v or Cr) refractory high-entropy alloys

E. Fazakas, V. Zadorozhnyy, L. K. Varga, A. Inoue, D. V. Louzguine-Luzgin, Fuyang Tian, L. Vitos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

169 Citations (Scopus)


We investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti 20Zr20Hf20Nb20X20 (X = V or Cr) high-entropy alloys (HEA), produced by induction melting and casting in inert atmosphere. The structures of these alloys were studied via X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that Ti 20Zr20Hf20Nb20V20 has mainly the body centered cubic (BCC) structure, whereas the BCC matrix of Ti20Zr20Hf20Nb20Cr20 contains small amount of Cr2Nb and Cr2Hf intermetallic compounds. Ti20Zr20Hf20Nb20V 20 alloy shows the high strength and the homogeneous deformation under compression at room temperature. The strength and hardness of Ti 20Zr20Hf20Nb20Cr20 alloy are further enhanced by the Cr-containing Laves phases segregated during casting. The structural and mechanical properties remained almost unchanged after a short time (10 min) heat treatment at 573, 773, 973 and 1173 K indicating the resistance to working temperature peaks for these two alloys. Ab initio calculations predict ductile behavior for these and similar refractory HEAs. The theoretically calculated Young's modulus E is in good agreement with the experimental ones.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-138
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Nov


  • Ab initio calculations
  • Casting
  • Diffraction electron microscopy scanning
  • Grain boundaries structure
  • Laves phases
  • Mechanical properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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