Examination of transformation among tetrodotoxin and its analogs in the living cultured juvenile puffer fish, kusafugu, Fugu niphobles by intramuscular administration

Michiko Kono, Takashi Matsui, Kiyoshi Furukawa, Takuhiko Takase, Kunio Yamamori, Hideko Kaneda, Daisuke Aoki, Jun Ho Jang, Mari Yotsu-Yamashita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In puffer fish, tetrodotoxin (TTX) exists as the major toxin with chemically equilibrium analogs (4-epiTTX, 4,9-anhydroTTX) and chemically non-equilibrium analogs (deoxy analogs, 11-oxoTTX, 4-S-cysteinylTTX). There are two purposes to this study: 1) to search for the reason why TTX is the most major analog in puffer fish, even 4,9-anhydroTTX is chemically more stable, 2) to investigate whether or not chemically non-equilibrium analogs are transformed in puffer fish, because these were predicted to be biosynthetic intermediates. Pure TTX, 4-epiTTX, 4,9-anhydroTTX, and 11-oxoTTX were separately administrated to the cultured non-toxic juvenile puffer fish kusafugu, Fugu niphobles by intramuscular injection. Sixteen days after administration, TTX analogs in the whole fish were analyzed by LC-fluorescent detection and LC/MS. By the administration of TTX, 4-epiTTX, and 4,9-anhydroTTX, 34-40% of the administrated doses of the toxins were accumulated, and 4,9-anhydroTTX has become the major toxin after inter-conversion. This result indicates discrepancy from the previous ones wherein TTX was predominantly accumulated when TTXs were administrated through diets; this suggests that dietary administration might be necessary to accumulate TTX as the major toxin, and not 4,9-anhydroTTX. Transformations from TTX to deoxy analogs or 11-oxoTTX, or from 11-oxoTTX to TTX were not detected in this study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)714-720
Number of pages7
JournalToxicon
Volume52
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008 Nov

Keywords

  • Fugu niphobles
  • Kusafugu
  • Puffer fish
  • Tetrodotoxin
  • Transformation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

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