Evolutionary history of Hemerocallis in Japan inferred from chloroplast and nuclear phylogenies and levels of interspecific gene flow

Shun K. Hirota, Akiko A. Yasumoto, Kozue Nitta, Misa Tagane, Nozomu Miki, Yoshihisa Suyama, Tetsukazu Yahara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The perennial herb genus Hemerocallis (Asphodelaceae) shows four flowering types: diurnal half-day, diurnal one-day, nocturnal half-day, and nocturnal one-day flowering. These flowering types are corresponding to their main pollinators, and probably act as a primary mechanism of reproductive isolation. To examine how the four flowering types diverged, we reconstructed the phylogeny of the Japanese species of Hemerocallis using 1615 loci of nuclear genome-wide SNPs and 2078 bp sequences of four cpDNA regions. We also examined interspecific gene flows among taxa by an Isolation-with-Migration model and a population structure analysis. Our study revealed an inconsistency between chloroplast and nuclear genome phylogenies, which may have resulted from chloroplast capture. Each of the following five clusters is monophyletic and clearly separated on the nuclear genome-wide phylogenetic tree: (I) two nocturnal flowering species with lemon-yellow flowers, H. citrina (half-day flowering) and H. lilioasphodelus (one-day flowering); (II) a diurnal one-day flowering species with yellow-orange flowers, H. middendorffii; (III) a variety of a diurnal half-day flowering species with reddish orange flowers, H. fulva var. disticha; (IV) another variety of a diurnal half-day flowering species with reddish orange flowers, H. fulva var. aurantiaca, and a diurnal one-day flowering species with yellow-orange flowers, H. major; (V) a diurnal half-day flowering species with yellow-orange flowers, H. hakuunensis. The five clusters are consistent with traditional phenotype-based taxonomy (cluster I, cluster II, and clusters III-V correspond to Hemerocallis sect. Hemerocallis, Capitatae, and Fulvae, respectively). These findings could indicate that three flowering types (nocturnal flowering, diurnal one-day flowering, and diurnal half-day flowering) diverged in early evolutionary stages of Hemerocallis and subsequently a change from diurnal half-day flowering to diurnal one-day flowering occurred in a lineage of H. major. While genetic differentiation among the five clusters was well maintained, significant gene flow was detected between most pairs of taxa, suggesting that repeated hybridization played a role in the evolution of those taxa.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107264
JournalMolecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Volume164
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Nov

Keywords

  • Flower color
  • Flowering time
  • Hybridization
  • MIG-seq
  • SNPs
  • cpDNA capture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

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